Alessandra Damiani, Aaron Harwood
Scientific English
Conceptual Understanding and Abstract Writing
anno di pubblicazione 2020

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Scientific English: Conceptual Understanding and Abstract Writing è un compendio di Inglese Scientifico scritto in lingua inglese, uno strumento per meglio scrivere e comprendere il linguaggio accademico in lingua. Il testo identifica nei connettivi enunciativi i perni del discorso scientifico, offre una serie di spunti per aumentare la propria velocità di lettura e mostra come scrivere un abstract che risulti corretto da un punto di vista accademico e accattivante da un punto di vista bibliometrico. Il compendio analizza la tipologia degli articoli scientifici e la loro articolazione in sezioni, facendo esplicito riferimento al formato IMRAD; nel contempo, provvede una griglia per la coniugazione dei verbi proprio in funzione di tali sezioni, fornisce uno schema per l’uso e l’identificazione dei connettivi enunciativi, esamina i tipi di paragrafo utilizzati in ambito scientifico, offre una tabella per il corretto posizionamento degli avverbi e una lista di frasi fatte utili nella composizione dei resoconti scientifici.

Scientific English: Conceptual Understanding and Abstract Writing is a compendium of Scientific English written in English, and a tool to better understand academic language both spoken and written. The text identifies sentence connectors as the pillars underpinning scientific discourse, offers a number of ideas to increase one’s reading speed and shows how to write effective abstracts that are both appropriate from an academic perspective, and conducive to a high bibliometric score. This compendium analyses the typologies of scientific articles and their articulation into sections, making specific reference to the IMRAD format, whilst providing a framework for the conjugation of verbs according to these sections and offering a scheme for the use, as well as identification of sentence connectors. Furthermore, it also examines the various paragraph types used within science, offering a table to assist in the correct positioning of adverbs and providing a list of common phrases and idioms useful in the composition of scientific reports.

Presentazione per il lettore italiano

Introduction
1. Aim and contents
2. Reading key

PART ONE: The Act of Science

Unit 1. Scientific Publications

1. Scientific papers

2. Paper typology
2.1. Descriptive papers
2.2. Empirical papers
2.3. Papers which are both empirical and descriptive

3. The IMRAD format
3.1. IMRAD format and active reading

4. Abstracts
4.1. Informative abstracts
4.2. Descriptive abstracts

5. Abstract typology
5.1. Structured abstracts
5.2. Partially structured abstract
5.3. Unstructured abstracts

6. Abstracts and scientific speed

PART TWO: Scientific Understanding

Unit 2. Linking words and phrases

1. Sentence connectors

2. Sentence connectors as discourse markers

3. Sentence connector identification
3.1. And, or, but, that and wh-words are not discourse markers
3.2. Focus on logical relations
3.3. Sentence connectors usually take front position
3.4. Sentence connectors do not help verbs complete their actions
3.5. Adverbs that only modify verbs are not sentence connectors
3.6. Sentence connectors conjoin a dependent clause to its main clause

4. Sentence connectors linking nouns

5. Stance markers

Unit 3. Discourse development patterns

1. Paragraphs

2. Topic sentences

3. Paragraph types
3.1. Enumerative paragraphs
3.2. Example paragraphs
3.3. Explanation paragraphs
3.4. Definition paragraphs
3.5. Comparison and contrast paragraphs
3.6. Problem stating and/or solving paragraphs
3.7. Generalization paragraphs

PART THREE: Scientific Writing

Unit 4. Verb tenses

1.Verbs

2. Verb tenses and information type
2.1. Present simple
2.2. Present perfect
2.3. Past simple
2.4. Conditionals
2.5. Passive voice

3. Modal verbs and related expressions
3.1. Deontic and epistemic modality

4. Verb tenses and Scientific English
4.1. Introduction sections
4.2. Method sections
4.3. Result sections
4.4. Discussion and conclusion sections

Unit 5. Sentence structure, fixed expressions and rephrasing
1. SVOMPT rule and adverbial position
1.1. Adverb placement

2. Sentence patterns
2.1. Complements and linking verbs

3. Type of sentences

4. Basic register for Scientific English
4.1. Uncountable nouns
4.2. Fixed expressions

5. Rephrasing
5.1. Searching for different terms
5.2. Searching for different grammar structure

Unit 6. Abstract writing

1. Abstracts as reading catalysts

2. Abstract writing tips
2.1. Avoid mentioning information not presented in the paper
2.2. Take an objective stance
2.3. Use impersonal language
2.4. Avoid overusing abbreviations, acronyms and references
2.5. Prefer simple sentences and limit sentence connectors

3. Reverse outlining
3.1. Reverse reading
3.2. Reverse writing

APPENDIXES
Appendix A: Singular ‘They’
Appendix B: False Friends

TABLES
1. Sentence connectors
2. Passive conjugation
3. Verb tense pattern
4. Adverb placement
5. High-frequency noun-preposition couples
6. The singular forms of the third person 95

FIGURES
1. Paper typology
2. Paper typology revisited
3. Abstract typology
4. Abstract and paper correlations
5. Type of sentences

Alessandra Damiani insegna Inglese Scientifico presso l’Università di Torino, e lavora anche come traduttrice. Ha pubblicato su riviste specializzate ed è autrice del saggio Il grande giorno della festa, Torino 2019.
Professor on contract of Scientific English at Turin University, and translator. She published in philosophical journals and is the author of Il grande giorno della festa, Torino 2019.


Aaron Harwood è architetto, designer, illustratore e artista, vive nel Regno Unito. Ha maturato esperienze professionali nel campo della revisione dei testi scientifici, del web-design e della cinematografia.
Qualified architect, designer, illustrator and artist based in the UK. He has experience in fields of language and scientific editing, as well as web-design and filmmaking.